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做弹簧也要涨知识:冷成形弹簧的常用材料和制造工艺

编辑:吉码科技 来源:www。jimaspring。com

 冷成形弹簧的常用材料,以成形后热处理工艺方法的不同可分为以下几种类型。

第一种类型为不需要淬火,弹簧成形后只需去应力退火的材料。这类材料主要为拉拔强化钢,
 
有碳素弹簧钢丝、重要用途碳素弹簧钢丝、琴钢丝、弹簧用不锈钢丝和各种油淬火回火钢丝。
 
第二种类型为弹簧成形后只需时效处理的材料,有铍青铜丝、弹簧元件用合金等。
 
第三种类型为须经淬火处理的材料和回火处理的材料。主要为退火和热轧材料,如热轧弹簧钢丝、硅锰弹簧钢丝、铬钒弹簧钢丝,铬硅弹簧钢丝等。
 
随着冶金行业的发展和弹簧性能要求的不断提高,为了减少设备投资,降低生产成本,缩短生产用期提高产品质量
 
和经济效益、从设计和制造上应选用成形后只需进行去应力退火的材料来制造弹簧,即第一种类型。卷绕成形后须
 
经淬火、回火的材料。即第三种类型尽可能不要使用。
 
成形后须进行时效处理(硬化调质处理)的第二种类型,则更多地用于具有特殊要求
 
的弹簧,如耐腐蚀、弱磁、导电等场合。
 
冷成形弹簧的制造工艺
当使用成形后不需淬火、回火处理的材料制造弹簧时,其工艺过程如下。
螺旋压缩弹簧:卷制、 去应力退火、两端面磨削、(抛丸)、(校整)、(去应力退火)、
 
立定或强压处理、检验、表面防腐处理、包装。
 
螺旋拉伸弹簧:卷制、去应力退火、钩环制作、(切尾)、去应力退火、立定处理、检
 
验、表面防腐处理、包装。
 
螺旋扭转弹簧:卷制、去应力退火、扭臂制作、切尾、去应力退火、立定处理、检验、
 
表面防腐处理、包装。
 
以上介绍的螺旋拉伸和扭转弹簧的制造工艺都是在普通卷簧机上卷绕后再加工两端部的
 
钩环或扭臂。近年来国内外很多厂家都生产和使用了电脑成形机或专用成形机,簧身和尾部
 
形状能在成形机上一次完成,省去加工钩环或扭臂的工序。
 
当用成形后需淬火、回火处理的材料制造弹簧时,与上述工艺所不同的主要是成形后要
 
进行淬火、回火处理,有时弹簧端部加工需要经正火处理,
 
为了提高生产效率,对于有批量生产要求的弹簧,组成生产线。这样的生产线不但能提
 
高生产效率和经济效益,而且也能保证产品质量。典型的生产线,如气门弹簧生产线,悬架
 
弹簧生产线等。
 
气门弹簧生产线流程:卷簧、(渗氮)、(清洗)、 去应力退火、(高度分选)、两端面磨
 
削、倒角、一次喷丸、(二次喷丸)、(热压)、 负荷分选、涂防锈油、成品检验、包装。
 
悬架弹簧生产线流程如下。
 
冷成形:卷簧、去应力退火、(热压)、 (探伤)、喷丸、(热喷丸+应力喷丸)、(冷
 
压)、负荷分选、表面涂装、成品检测、包装。
 
热成形: 材料加热、卷簧、(端面成形)、淬火、回火、(热压)、检测、喷丸(一次或
 
多次)、冷压、负荷分选、表面涂装、成品检测、包装。
 
卷簧是弹簧卷制成型的简称。卷簧是弹簧制造的第一道工序,也是重要的工序,卷制的精度是极为重要的。
The common material of cold forming spring can be divided into the following types according to the different process of heat treatment after forming.
 
The first type is a material that does not require quenching and only requires stress annealing after the spring is formed. This kind of material is mainly drawn steel,
 
 
 
Carbon spring steel wire, important USES of carbon spring steel wire, piano steel wire, spring with stainless steel wire and all kinds of oil quenching temper steel wire.
 
 
 
The second type is the material which only needs aging treatment after spring forming, such as beryllium bronze wire and alloy for spring elements.
 
 
 
The third type is materials that must be quenched and tempered. Mainly for annealing and hot rolling materials, such as hot rolling spring steel wire, silicon manganese spring steel wire, chromium vanadium spring steel wire, chromium silicon spring steel wire.
 
 
 
With the development of metallurgical industry and the continuous improvement of spring performance requirements, in order to reduce equipment investment, reduce production costs, shorten the production period to improve product quality
 
 
 
And economic benefits, from the design and manufacturing should be selected after the formation of only stress annealing material to manufacture the spring, that is, the first type. After winding
 
 
 
Hardened and tempered material. The third type should not be used as much as possible.
 
 
 
The second type, which requires aging treatment after forming, is more commonly used with special requirements
 
 
 
Spring, such as corrosion resistance, weak magnetic, conductive and other occasions.
 
 
 
Cold forming spring manufacturing process
 
When a spring is made from a material that does not require quenching or tempering after forming, the process is as follows.
 
Spiral compression spring: coil, stress annealing, two end grinding, (shot blasting), (adjustment), (stress annealing),
 
 
 
Standing or pressure treatment, inspection, surface anti-corrosion treatment, packaging.
 
 
 
Spiral stretching spring: winding, stress annealing, hook ring production, (cut tail), stress annealing, standing treatment, inspection
 
 
 
Inspection, surface corrosion treatment, packaging.
 
 
 
Spiral torsion spring: winding, stress annealing, torsional arm production, tail cutting, stress annealing, standing treatment, inspection,
 
 
 
Surface anti-corrosion treatment, packaging.
 
 
 
The manufacturing process of spiral stretch and torsion spring introduced above is to reprocess both ends after winding on the common spring coiling machine
 
 
 
Hook or torsion arm. In recent years, many domestic and foreign manufacturers have produced and used computer forming machine or special forming machine, spring body and tail
 
 
 
Shape can be completed in one time in the forming machine, eliminating the process of processing hook ring or twisting arm.
 
 
 
When the spring is made of materials that need quenching and tempering after forming, the main difference with the above process is that after forming
 
 
 
Quenching, tempering treatment, sometimes the end of the spring processing need to go through normalizing treatment,
 
 
 
In order to improve production efficiency, for the mass production of spring requirements, the composition of the production line. Such production line can not only be improved
 
 
 
High production efficiency and economic benefits, but also to ensure the quality of products. Typical production line, such as valve spring production line, suspension
 
 
 
Spring production line, etc.
 
 
 
Valve spring production line flow: coil spring, (nitriding), (cleaning), stress annealing, (height separation), two end grinding
 
 
 
Cutting, chamfering, first shot peening, (second shot peening), (hot press), load sorting, rust-proof oil coating, finished product inspection, packaging.
 
 
 
Suspension spring production line flow is as follows.
 
 
 
Cold forming: coil spring, stress relief annealing, (hot press), (flaw detection), shot peening, (hot shot peening + stress peening), (cold
 
 
 
Pressure), load sorting, surface coating, finished product testing, packaging.
 
 
 
Hot forming: material heating, coil spring, (end face forming), quenching, tempering, (hot pressing), testing, shot peening (once or
 
 
 
Many times), cold pressure, load sorting, surface coating, finished product testing, packaging.
 
 
 
Coil spring is the abbreviation of spring coil forming. Coil spring is the first process of spring manufacturing, is also an important process, the precision of winding is very important.

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